Glossary of terms

Adjusted Share
When comparing data over time, Share values are adjusted to 2019 levels to account for the small annual variation in the total number of articles in Nature Index journals. The adjustment of Share values in each year is done by calculating the percentage difference in the total number of articles in the index in a given year relative to the number of articles in 2019 and applying this adjustment to Share values.
Affiliated institution
An institution that is wholly owned, operated, administered or contains research facilities for another institution. All affiliations for an affiliated institution are credited to the institution to which it is affiliated.
Affiliated joint institution
A research facility operated jointly by multiple institutions. Each partner institution of the joint institution receives an equivalent Share for every affiliation in which the joint institution is included.
Affiliated joint institutions and consortia
Represents joint institutions and consortia for which the institution is designated as a partner institution.
Bilateral collaboration score (CS)
A bilateral collaboration can be between any two institutions or countries/regions co-authoring at least one article in the journals tracked by the Nature Index. CS is derived by summing the Shares from articles with authors from both institutions or countries/regions. The collaboration score between two institutions or countries/regions A+B is the sum of each of their Shares on the papers to which both have contributed.
Consortia
Indicates research partnerships between multiple institutions. Each partner institution of a consortium receives an equivalent Share for every affiliation in which the consortium is included. Often consortia are international and in some cases there is no home research facility.
Count
A Count of one is assigned to an institution or country/region if one or more authors of the research article are from that institution or country/region, regardless of how many co-authors there are from outside that institution or country/region.
DOI
A digital object identifier, a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet. The publisher assigns a DOI when an article is published and made available electronically.
Funding institution
An institution that funds research and is not responsible for the administration of the research or research itself. Affiliations that are deemed to be from funding institutions do not receive a Share, except where a funding institution has its own research facilities, in which cases those affiliations will receive a Share.
Multilateral collaboration score (MCS)
An indicator of collaboration between multiple institutions. Multilateral collaboration, between a group of three or more institutions that co-author articles in the index, can be calculated for an individual institution or a group of institutions. MCS accounts for the number of collaborating institutions on a given article, so it can be added across multiple institutions, always resulting in a total Share of 1 for each article. MCS is derived by first dividing the total article Share on each article for each collaborating institution by one less than the total number of institutions (n) which collaborated on the article (i.e. n-1). This is done for each collaborating institution, and the values are summed for each pair of institutions to give the total MCS for that pair on an article. The MCS for an individual institution (A) is the sum of the values from each of its pairs (e.g. (A+B) + (A+C) + (A+D) etc.).
Nature Index
A freely accessible database of author affiliation information collated from research articles published in an independently selected group of 82 high-quality science journals.
Outputs
The metrics referring to research articles tracked by the Nature Index for which a particular institution or country/region has at least one affiliation. An institution’s or country/region’s outputs in the Nature Index are Count and Share.
Partner institutions
The institutions that together own, operate, administer or have responsibility for research facilities and/or activities at the relevant joint institution or consortium.
Principal institution
The institution responsible for the operation and administration of another institution or research facility.
Regions
Groups of countries organized into major regions of the world. In some cases, continental borders do not define a region. See here for a list of countries included in each region.
Share
A fractional count allocated to an institution or country/region for an article that takes into account the percentage of authors from that institution or country/region and the number of affiliated institutions that contributed to the article. For calculation of Share, all authors are considered to have contributed equally to the article. The maximum combined Share for any article is 1.0.
Subjects
Macro-subject areas into which outputs are assigned. Research articles are assigned to subjects based on the scientific discipline of the journal in which they are published, with the exception of multidisciplinary journals – Nature, Nature Communications, PNAS and Science. For these journals, subjects are assigned at the article level. Research articles can be assigned to more than one subject.
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